The species is found in Assam, Mizoram & Meghalaya in India, Bangladesh and in Myanmar west of the Chindwin River. 2004). 2006). The eastern hoolock gibbon inhabits specific pockets of Arunachal Pradesh and Assam in India, and southern China and north-east Myanmar. H. hoolock. Hoolock gibbons (Hoolock hoolock) are endangered small apes occurring in Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, and south China. 2006). Additionally, timber trees of commercial value that are old enough to be logged should be replaced by combinations of fruit‐producing tree species to maintain and even enhance this diversity. Tree assemblages and diversity patterns in Tropical Juri Forest, Bangladesh. Based on the results of these two studies, we offer suggestions to prioritize conservation and management action to help preserve hoolock gibbons in Bangladesh. Hoolock gibbon survey sites in Bangladesh. Range Description. All known populations have undergone declines primarily due to habitat destruction or alteration. Habitat characteristics in Lawachara and Kaptai.— Quantitative information on the habitat characteristics of hoolock gibbons is very limited (e.g., Ahsan 2001, Feeroz 2001). 56 Keywords: New species, Hoolock tianxing, gibbon, Mt. Received 11 April 2006; revision accepted 4 October 2006. Area of natural forests and plantations were not linked to hoolock gibbon numbers, whereas area of agricultural land and edible plant species richness were both significantly linked. The gibbons live high up in the canopies of the tropical rainforests of China A gibbon living in the tropical forests of south west China is a new species of primate, scientists have concluded. Species List ... Southern Yellow - cheeked Crested Gibbon Siamang Western Hoolock We are also grateful to Anthony Di Fiore and three anonymous reviewers for critically reviewing a previous version of the manuscript and providing suggestions that have significantly improved this manuscript. Among the 13 gibbon species, hoolock gibbons Hoolock hoolock Harlan are perhaps under the greatest threat throughout their geographic range (Haimoff et al. The full text of this article hosted at iucr.org is unavailable due to technical difficulties. (2006) suggested that populations that are not viable (e.g., populations with two individuals (Rema Kalenga) may benefit from translocation to protected areas with better habitat (such as Satchari). Habitat destruction and alteration for agriculture and silviculture are regarded as some of the key causes of hoolock gibbon population declines in Bangladesh and elsewhere (Feeroz 2001, Islam et al. 2006). Learn about our remote access options, School of Environmental Science and Management, Independent University, House No. The Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) and Hoolock gibbon (Hoolock hoolock) are two globally endan-gered wildlife species limited to only tropical Asian forests. Are you inspired by endangered animals? Number of times cited according to CrossRef: Evolution, Ecology and Conservation of Lorises and Pottos. 2004, 2006) and the reduction of edible plant species richness could be an important force driving these local extinctions. Modelling spatial distribution of critically endangered Asian elephant and Hoolock gibbon in Bangladesh forest ecosystems under a changing climate. Their populations in southern China and Myanmar have not been surveyed in recent years and population estimates from the eighties suggested no more than 200 individuals lived in these areas (MacKinnon & MacKinnon 1987, Mootnick et al. Teak is one of the prime timber species, particularly in the southeastern regions of Bangladesh (Gain 2002, Kabir & Muzaffar 2002). 2006). We thank the US Fish and Wildlife Service for funding this project through its Great Ape Conservation Program. All gibbon species have undergone massive declines in population size primarily due to habitat destruction and alteration. The height of trees in Lawachara was significantly lower than those in Kaptai (one‐way ANOVA, df = 1167, F= 37.49, P < 0.001). The species is confined to 29 fragmented forested areas in western and central Java. Areas such as Lawachara and Karnafuli Range (Kaptai) have been surveyed extensively with tree species richness being well documented in these areas. 2 subspecies: Western Hoolock Gibbon (Bunopithecus hoolock hoolock), Eastern Hoolock Gibbon (Bunopithecus hoolock leuconedys), This article is only an excerpt. Additionally, villagers living around important habitats should be carefully incorporated into conservation plans to prevent further degradation of these habitats by conversion to agricultural land. western hoolock gibbon conservation MPS is proud to support its lifetime member, Tarik Kabir and his project on community-based conservation and population assessment of the Endangered Western hoolock gibbon (Hoolock hoolock) in Bangladesh with funds granted by The Rufford Foundation . The most recent estimate of hoolock gibbons is close to 300 individuals (Islam et al. In Bangladesh both species are critically endangered and distributed mainly in the northeast and southeast hilly regions bordering neighboring India and Myanmar. A new subspecies of the western hoolock gibbon has been described recently from northeastern India, which has been named the Mishmi Hills hoolock gibbon, Hoolock hoolock mishmiensis. Our study suggests that areas such as Baralekha, Lathitila, Lawachara, Satchari, and Adampur in the northeast and Kaptai, Rampahar, and Bamu have large enough populations and conservation efforts may be directed toward managing these hoolock gibbon populations. The discovery 54 of the new species focuses attention on the need for improved conservation of small 55 apes, many of which are in danger of extinction in southern China and Southeast Asia. For corroboration surveys, field workers walked along 5–25 km of existing trails with a local guide. We describe a species of Hoolock gibbon (Primates: Hylobatidae) that is new to science from eastern Myanmar and southwestern China. Currently, hoolocks are categorized by the IUCN World Conservation Union in Bangladesh as critically endangered (IUCN 2000) and globally as endangered (IUCN 2006). western hoolock gibbons singing are monogamous and live in small family groups (2 - 5 individuals) with the adult male and female and their offspring. The overall tree density was higher in Kaptai (598.1/ha) compared to Lawachara (528.5/ha). 2008 August 13. It might possibly occur in China (extreme southeastern Tibet). Working off-campus? 2006), indicating that the species is tenaciously holding on in limited patches of a suitable habitat. 2005, Islam et al. Habitat quality across sites.— Maps of each study site were collected from the digitized map database available in the Forest Department, Ministry of Environment and Forest. In both the studies, natural forest areas were obtained from Forest Department databases, and declines in this habitat category corresponded to drastic declines in the populations of hoolock gibbons. In India they only occur in the north eastern states. The use of natural forest categorized by the Forest Department, therefore, does not provide any clear information on the habitat of hoolock gibbons, other than the fact that whatever habitat available to them had declined significantly over the years. The relative density, relative cover, and relative frequency values varied between species and between Lawachara and Kaptai (Table 2). Mapping and assessing the transboundary elephant corridor in the Patharia Hills Reserve Forest of Assam, India. These problems in categorization are likely reasons for the absence of a relationship between plantations, natural forests, and hoolock numbers in our analyses. Ahsan (1994, 2001) and Feeroz (2001) have stated the importance of a diversity of fruiting trees in hoolock gibbon survival. The western hoolock gibbon (Hoolock hoolock) is a globally threatened species, and in Bangladesh it is critically endangered. (2004) have all speculated that closed‐canopy structure and diversity of fruiting trees are perhaps the most important determinants of hoolock gibbon population size in the sites where they are still present. This fascinating primate species is also found in the southern ranges of the Khasi Hills (community forests near Mawsynram) and Jaintia Hills. The species is probably endangered. Those found in Assam represents more than 70% of the Indian population. Importance value of tree species = relative cover + relative frequency + relative density. The hoolock gibbon, an endangered species, is a now rare sight in the forests of northeast India. Among the 13 gibbon species, hoolock gibbons Hoolock hoolock Harlan are perhaps under the greatest threat throughout their geographic range (Haimoff et al. Extricating the root cause of population declines in such a variety of factors that influence primate populations is often difficult. The taxonomy of the hoolock gibbon has recently been significantly revised. The hoolock gibbon is an umbrella species living in the semi‐evergreen deciduous forests of Bangladesh and their survival through management will also benefit other species that are components of closed‐canopy forests (Kabir & Muzaffar 2002). News … Some sites are combined due to their close proximity. Similarly, this study also provides the first quantitative link between agricultural land area and hoolock gibbon numbers across the study sites. Do environmental attributes, disturbances and protection regimes determine the distribution of exotic plant species in Bangladesh forest ecosystem?. Hoolocks are the second largest of the gibbons, after the Siamang. The main reasons for this are habitat loss and degradation, hunting and illegal trade. The principal cause of population decline is presumed to be habitat destruction (e.g., Gittins & Akonda 1982, Gittins 1984, Gittins & Tilson 1984, Chivers 2001, Islam et al. We presented the result of a systematic survey on the population size and distribution of the Endangered Gaoligong hoolock gibbon (Hoolock tianxing) in Houqiao Town, Tengchong City, Yunnan Province of China.A total of 15–18 individuals of H. tianxing in 5–6 gibbon groups and one solitary gibbon were recorded during the survey conducted in November 2019. J Trop Ecol 7(1):147-53. Wildlife enthusiasts who visit the … Mortality of primates due to roads and power lines in two forest patches in Bangladesh. We studied habitat characteristics of hoolock gibbons in Bangladesh to examine the variables that are important in determining hoolock gibbon numbers. Bangladesh, India, Myanmar — The population of this south Asian gibbon has declined by over 90% since the early 1970s when they totalled over 100,000. This species is found particularly east of the Chindwin River in Myanmar and in southwest Yunnan (China). More to come soon. Of the two, the western hoolock is listed as Endangered in the IUCN Redlist, while the eastern hoolock is listed as Vulnerable. The alpha level was set to 0.05 for all tests. The species is further sub-divided into the western and eastern hoolock gibbon. With long and slender arms, hoolock gibbons are swift creatures, barely needing to step on the ground. This species is found in eastern Bangladesh, northeastern India (Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, and Tripura), and northwestern Myanmar (west of the Chindwin River). Apr 29, 2020 - The only tribe of apes inhabiting the country is the Hoolock Gibbons, found in the North-east forests. Stops were made every 10 min to listen for calling hoolock gibbons or to scan the canopy for hoolock gibbons. games and coloring pages! Establishment of the Global Gibbon Network Initiative 17.12.2020. Groves 2005). We used part of this count data (22 sites) in our analyses to explore the link between hoolock gibbon numbers and habitat variables, since the information on all the variables being considered were not available for all 35 sites (Table 1). The IUCN has classified the population of the western hoolock as endangered and that of the eastern hoolock as vulnerable. 81/Ka, Road # 11, Baridhara, Dhaka 1212, Bangladesh, Corresponding author; Current address: Department of Biology, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada A1B 3X9; e‐mail: email@example.com, Current address: Wildlife Trust of Bangladesh, 69/1 New Circular Road, Malibagh, Dhaka, Bangladesh, Department of Zoology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh, Department of Zoology, Jahangirnagar University, Savaar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. (1) Baralekha, (2) Lathitila, Sagarnal, (3) Adampur, (4) Rema‐Kalenga, (5) Lawachara, Chautoli, (6) Satchari, (7) Dighinala, Ramgar, (8) Pablakhali, Kudhukhoza, (9) Korerhat, Hazarikhil, (10) Rampahar, Karnafuli (Kaptai), (11) Dopachari, (12) Chunati, Satghar, (13) Bamu, (14) Thanchi, (15) Alikadam, (16) Sangu, (17) Fashiakhali, Bhomarighona, Bangdepa, Bishari, Rajghat, Apar Rezu, (18) Inani, (19) Ukhia, (20) Teknaf (from Islam et al. We also analyzed the existing habitat characteristics in two of the largest hoolock gibbon populations in Bangladesh: Lawachara (42 individuals) and Kaptai (84 individuals). Habitat Characteristics and Their Effects on the Density of Groups of Western Hoolock Gibbon (Hoolock hoolock) in Namdapha National Park, Arunachal Pradesh, India. The actual number of species used by hoolock gibbons is likely to be higher and is highly variable depending on seasonality and geographic range (Ahsan 2001). The work would have been impossible without the efforts of many students and volunteers from the University of Dhaka and Jahangirnagar University. The Hollongapar Gibbon Sanctuary is one of the last strongholds of the western hoolock gibbon, which the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) lists as an endangered species on its Red List. Fruits and flowers of A. chapalasha constitute an important component of the diet of hoolock gibbons and the higher representation of this species is of great significance to hoolock gibbon persistence in degraded areas (Ahsan 2001, Feeroz 2001, Islam et al. A total of 35 sites were surveyed (Islam et al. In fact, the areas that have undergone declines in population have also lost considerable natural forests as classified by the Forest Department. Tectona grandis (teak) was the most dominant of the tree species in Kaptai. Artocarpus, Tectona, and Dipterocarpus were the three most important genera in both sites, although Artocarpus was more important in Lawachara. The population of Bangladesh is currently 147 million (CIA 2006) and rural populations surrounding forested areas tend to exert a tremendous pressure on these resources to meet their basic demands for fuel wood and other forest products (Gain 2002). Normally they reach a … 1987). J Trop Ecol 7(1):147-53. The eastern hoolock gibbon (Hoolock leuconedys) male can be differentiated from the western species (Hoolock hoolock) by its grizzled silver coloured chest; a silver genital tuft and the white brow streaks are widely separated in adult males and juveniles of both sexes instead of being Plantations may refer to both monocultures as well as floristically diverse secondary forests (as is seen in Lawachara National Park). The song includes an introductory sequence, an organising sequence, and a great call sequence, with the male also contributing to the latter (unlike in some other gibbon species). Hoolock gibbons (Hoolock hoolock) are endangered small apes occurring in Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, and south China. If it appears incomplete or if you wish to see article references, visit the rest of its contents, Eight Inexpensive Ways You Can Help Endangered Species. 1). The Hoolock gibbons’ original entire habitat covered about 100,000 square miles (160,000 sq km) and shrunk to 35,000 square miles (56,000 sq km) in 1987. Habitat quality across sites.— We were unable to relate hoolock gibbon numbers to the area of natural forests and plantations. Trees in Kaptai were larger when compared to Lawachara and regenerating, fruit‐producing trees in both sites must be protected to maintain the high floristic diversity important to hoolock gibbons. Unfortunately this charismatic species is facing habitat loss and hunting across its range. The Hoolock gibbons’ original entire habitat covered about 100,000 square miles (160,000 sq km) and shrunk to 35,000 square miles (56,000 sq km) in 1987. The Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 put them in the list of Schedule-I species. Relative cover = mean basal area per hectare. Home to a sizeable population of India’s only ape species — the endangered hoolock gibbon — the sanctuary is the only one in India named for a primate. Recent molecular evidence documented that the distance among gibbon subgenera was as large or larger than the distance between chimpanzees (Pan) and humans (Homo) (Roos & Geissmann, 2001). Gron KJ. The efforts for conservation of hoolock gibbon has been funded by US Fish Wildlife Service (Great Ape Conservation Fund). Key to the conservation of hoolock gibbons in these and other areas will be habitat protection. On top of this are the ever‐present effects of human populations living in and around some of these forest patches. Hoolock gibbons have been placed within their own genus, Hoolock, as well as split into two discrete species, the western hoolock gibbon (H. hoolock) and the eastern hoolock (H. leuconedys) (Mootnick & Groves 2005).However, in many publications, the two species are only considered distinct at the subspecific … Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. The censuses were conducted from 2003 to 2005 (detailed in Islam et al. This study provided the first thorough survey of its population status and distribution in China since its recognition as a new species. 1984, Chivers 2001). The western hoolock gibbon ( Hoolock hoolock) is a primate from the gibbon family, Hylobatidae. Ecology of the hoolock gibbon (Hylobates hoolock), a lesser ape in the tropical forests of north-eastern India. The genus of hoolock gibbons comprises two previously described living species, the western (Hoolock hoolock) and eastern hoolock (H. leuconedys) gibbons, geographically isolated by the Chindwin River. The largest population of hoolock gibbons (84 individuals) occurs in Kaptai (Karnafuli Range) and the second largest population occurs in Lawachara National Park (42 individuals). The Inner-line reserve forest of Barak Valley is one of the habitat of Hoolock gibbon where these gibbon groups were surveyed and habitat assessment was done. Habitat characterization of western hoolock gibbons Hoolock hoolock by examining home range microhabitat use. The population of the Skywalker hoolock gibbon is unknown, but it's believed to be very low. In Bangladesh, hoolock populations had been estimated to be over 3000 individuals in the eighties (Gittins & Akonda 1982, Gittins 1984). All known populations have undergone declines primarily due to habitat destruction or alteration. 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